An overview of the Basic Concepts of OOPS programming
Basic Concepts Related to OOPS
What is OOPS?
Very Simple ‘Object Oriented Programming System ‘ :). But most of us are not clear about this
during the initial stage of Programming. Let us move on and see till what limit
it can be clarified through this article.
Why OOPS? What are the basic principles of OOPS?
Before OOPS concept came in there was a Conventional model
of Programming that had a long list of Commands. Not like OOPS, in conventional
model, program is seen as a list of tasks (subroutine
to perform!! The Code review will be a horror.
This is where OOPS became important. As the name specify,
OOPS program may be viewed as a collection of interacting objects.
are very much related to the real-time objects in the project. These
Objects have function related to it. But how can we understand an object, or
how can we find the type of the object. Here is where the concept of Class
is representation of a type of object.
example, I’m Baimey, I’m an Object of the Class Human Being, or to be more
clear ‘Baimey is a Human Being’. I hope the concept of class is clear. But when
I’m a human being, I have a number of systems in me, e. g. Respiratory system,
which can represent a function.
where available even in the conventional programming system, but here what is
the difference. Here function represents the activities of an object. But like
a general system, if I say, when we apply brake for an engine it stops. The
user can see only the brake lever (abstraction)
and Functionality happen in the engine is covered (encapsulation).
Abstraction and Encapsulation came together, along with
which we see the concept of Generalization as well. Abstraction
places the emphasis on what an object is or does; but
helps to manage
complexity by collecting individuals into groups and providing a representative
which can be used to specify any individual of the group; Encapsulation
capsules all the complexities or implementation. Any
class is an encapsulation of a number of member’s properties and Methods.
When we use OOPS, it provides option for features like inheritance
the common language means getting the characteristics and functionalities of
ancestors. Here the scenario is similar, a Base
, can be inherited by Derived
The latter can use and override the functionalities of the former.
are not allowed in .Net, i.e., a derived class can inherit
only from a Base class, but a work around for this is to use Interfaces.
a sense agreements that must be followed by the inherited class. Interfaces
cannot be used (i.e, initialized or made an object) e.g. we make an interface
for heartbeating and breathing, when we implement a Person class using this
interface it is mandatory that the person class must have the implementation of
heartbeating and breathing, else it can’t survive, similarly we can have another
interface that says digestive system and urinary system, which can also be
implemented in Person class. So here we have 2 interfaces that can be implemented
in a Class, at the same time Person class can also inherit from a Base class
Human. So here multiple inheritances are
NB: But keep in mind, the Base class should be referred
first, if there is any, when u specify the inheriting classes in a derived
class, later you can specify all the interfaces.
When we say about interfaces a short dialog on abstract
is also required.
are also similar to interfaces, they should be derived, i.e. abstract class
also cannot be instantiated. But difference
between interface and abstract class is that, interface has only definition
of the methods but no implementation, but abstract class can have functions
that have implementation and other functions that have only definitions.
also similar to what the name specifies. A particular function or method can be
used with different functionality and same name. This is called overloading
In Method overloading
methods of the same name defined twice in a class. In this case, these two
methods must have a change in number of
arguments, type of arguments or order of arguments. But variable change
or change in return type can’t be considered.
In Method overriding the
derived class can have its own implementation for the method in the base class.
This helps the derived class to have a change in functionality. Suppose if
Mammals is the base class then it can be derived by Human or Cow, whose
functionalities are different.
Hope this provides a basic overview on the Concepts of OOPS
for a beginner. Please keep reading more on each topic.
Happy Coding :)