In short Yes
HTTP is not just for serving up web pages. It is also a powerful platform for building APIs that expose services and data. HTTP is simple, flexible, and ubiquitous. Almost any platform that you can think of has an HTTP library, so HTTP services can reach a broad range of clients, including browsers, mobile devices, and traditional desktop applications.
Apart from serving the request/response operations of Web Pages, Http protocol is also a powerful platform for building APIs that expose services and data.
It's another purpose is to make REST(Representational State Transfer) services so that the client application can access the resources at the specified URI by using the GET,PUT,POST,DELETE requests.
WCF tried to solve this problem by using the webHttpBinding but it was not fully operational. MS resolved this problem by ASP.NET Web API which is a framework for building REST API's on top of the .NET Framework.
You can read this article http://code.tutsplus.com/articles/the-increasing-importance-of-apis-in-web-development--net-22368
for why it is important and importance of to learn WebAPI.
Moreover, as a starting guide you can follow these tutorials of mine about how to create and use them
Also for more details and advance usage of WebAPI, you can go through http://www.asp.net/web-api
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