Design Pattern & Practices Interview Questions and Answers (103) - Page 4

What is the role of an architect in Release Phase?

In the Release Phase , the architect plays the role of a Advisor. He needs to carry out at least the below mentioned activities in this phase

• Participate in acceptance review

•Assist the customer with

a) Project roll out plan

b) Actual roll-out

c) Migration
What are the activities of an architect in Maintenance / Governance Phase?

In the Maintenance / Governance Phase, the architect plays the role of a Consultant. He needs to carry out at least the below mentioned activities in this phase

• Review and improve existing systems

•Provide strategic & technological guidance

•Analyze change requests and document the impact of cost/timeline and
system/components specifications

•Manage change

•Modify architecture to help resolve production issues
Who are Stakeholders?

Stakeholders are all the people who are affected by the Architecture. Some examples of stakeholders are:

- System or network administrator

- Users

- QA team

- Architects

- Developer
What are the activities of an architect in Architecture Phase?

In the Architecture Phase, the architect plays the role of a owner. He needs to carry out at least the below mentioned activities in this phase

•Translate business goals into technical vision & strategy

•Articulate architectural requirements

•Define system scope

•Create high level solution of the system

•Validate the architecture

•Document and communicate the architecture

•Build Vs Buy analysis (open source Vs COTS assessment)

•Advise project managers on cost and time management

•Help project mangers to manage risk

•Assist project managers to build the right team
What are the activities of an architect in Concepts / Requirements Phase?

In the Concepts / Requirements Phase, the architect plays the role of a Strategist / Planner . He needs to carry out at least the below mentioned activities in this phase

•Infer the business goals

•Analyze functional and non-functional requirements

•Identify the stakeholders

•Maintain awareness of market and technology trends that could impact current projects and influence new projects
What are the activities of an architect in Structuring Phase?

•Identify the architecture style

•Articulate the principles of the architecture

•Identify system building blocks

•Assign responsibilities to architectural elements

•Define interfaces and interrelationships

•Model alternatives and make tradeoffs

•Select key technologies
What is the purpose of an Architecture Document?

Some of the important purpose of Architecture Document are listed under

1) Communicate the architecture as what stakeholders need to know, and how best to convey what they need to know

2) Bridge the problem space and solution space

3) Express the desired state that architecture will bring out

4) Core project asset and a living artifact through the life of the system
What is the purpose of Architectural Principles?

- Are statements of preferred architectural direction and practice

- Help establish a context for architectural decisions

- Use business criteria to rationalize basic architectural choices

- Eliminate the need for evaluating endless alternatives in the modeling stage by agreeing upfront on preferred directions
What is the purpose of Conceptual Architecture Diagram?

Conceptual architecture identifies

- the High level system components

- Responsibilities of each component

- Relationships/interactions/interconnections between the components

Conceptual architecture summarizes the entire system. It provides a useful vehicle to communicate the architecture to non-technical audiences such as management, marketing and other stakeholders
What is a component?

A component is a

- Modular unit of functionality

- High-level design unit

- Physical and replaceable part of the system
What are guidelines for component identification?

Some of the important guidelines for component identification are as under

- Group strongly related responsibilities or functionalities

- Consider things that are likely to change together

- Based on ease of work allocation

- Based on re-usability

- Distribution feasibility
What are the rules of a sound architectural documentation?

- Rationale behind key points

- Consider the reader’s point of view

- Avoid unnecessary repetition

- Avoid ambiguity

- Focus on the problem in hand than the technology

- Use standards

- Other NFRs such as cost

- Record rationale behind the document

- Keep documentation current, but not too current

- Concise References – if already existing on the web

- Use Links

- Review documentation for fitness of purpose
What are the advantages of Quality Attributes?

- Clarification of objectives

- Accountability and justification

- Early assessment & early corrections hence lower costs

- Metrics are comparable

- Detect deviation of actual system metrics from planned metrics
List some of the areas where Quality Attributes can be applied

- Quality Assessment

- Bidding

- Feasibility Analysis

- Estimation & Cost prediction

- Tracking Progress

- Identifying fault-prone elements & re-factoring
What are the types of Quality Attributes?

A) Business Qualities

e.g. Time to market, Cost – benefit, Projected life, and SLAs

b) Technical Qualities

System related – felt by the end users e.g. Availability, performance, security, testability, and usability


Architecture related – concern to the IT folks e.g. Coherence, Complexity, Portability, Completeness, Legacy integration
Explain the Business Quality Attribute parameters

A) Time to Market
Time required to put the system in production or roll into the market (in case of product). The Metric is Months/Years

B) Cost and Benefit
Total cost to build the system & ROI potential. The Metric is USD / USD per annum.

C) Projected Lifetime
How long the system is useful (life span of the system). The Metric is Years.

D) Business SLA
Ability of the system to carry out the business activities. It is system specific. The Metrics are claims per day, tickets per hour, Transactions per min etc.
Tell something about the Performance Quality Attribute

- It comes under the category of Technical Quality Attributes.

- It is the attribute of a computer system that characterizes the timeliness of the service delivered.

- Time required to respond to specific events or the number of events processed in a given interval of time.

- It is measured during Testing Phase.

- Metric use : Transactions/second, Response time in seconds
Tell something about the Scalability Quality Attribute

- It comes under the category of Technical Quality Attributes.

- It is the ability of the system to support additional users / high transaction volumes.

- It is measured during Testing Phase.

- It is calculated by using the formula : Number of concurrent users / Average time spent Users on the system
Tell something about the Usability Quality Attribute

- It comes under the category of Technical Quality Attributes.

- It is the ease with which the system can be learned and used.

- It is measured during Testing Phase.

- Metric use :

a) Time taken to complete an activity first time

b) Number of mouse clicks to perform an activity
Tell something about the Availability Quality Attribute

- It comes under the category of Technical Quality Attributes.

- It is the ability of the system for usage all the time without any downtime.

- It is calculated by the formula MTTF / (MTTF + Downtime)

- Higher MTTF and lower downtime indicates high availability

- It is measured during Testing Phase.
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